Accueil / Actualités / Tumenye Urukiko rwa rubanda rwo mu Bubiligi rwahamije bwa mbere umunyarwanda icyaha cya jenoside

Tumenye Urukiko rwa rubanda rwo mu Bubiligi rwahamije bwa mbere umunyarwanda icyaha cya jenoside

http://renaissanceactu.com/2021/08/27/tumenye-urukiko-rwa-rubanda-rwo-mu-bubiligi-rwahamije-bwa-mbere-umunyarwanda-icyaha-cya-jenoside/

Hashize imyaka hafi ibiri umuyarwanda Fabien Neretse aburanishijwe n’urukiko rwa rubanda (Cour d’Assise) rwo mu Bubiligi rwamuhamije icyaha cya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda rukamukatira igifungo cy’imyaka 25. Akaba yarabaye umunyarwanda wa mbere uhamijwe iki cyaha mu butabera bw’u Bubiligi. Ibi bikaba bituma hari abantu bakomeje kwibaza ku bubasha bw’uru rwego rw’ubucamanza bw’u Bubiligi rwakoze ayo mateka ndetse n’imikorere yarwo. Hakaba hari n’abarugereranya n’inkiko gacaca zo mu Rwanda.

renaissanceactu.com yifuje kugeza ku basomyi bayo ubushobozi, imiterere n’imikorere y’uru rukiko. Nguru rero Urukiko rwa rubanda rwaciriye urubanza umunyarwanda Fabien Neretse rukamukatira ku wa 20 ukuboza 2019.

Mu Bubiligi, Urukiko rwa rubanda (Cour d’Assise) ruburanisha gusa ibyaha bikomeye bidashobora koherezwa mu rukiko mpanabyaha rusanzwe; ari byo kwica, guhotora cyangwa gushaka guhotora no gufata bugwate. Ibyaha bya politiki n’itangazamakuru na byo biburanishwa n’uru rukiko.

Urukiko rwa rubanda si urukiko rukora ku buryo buhoraho, rujyaho iyo habonetse ikirego. Rugizwe n’abacamanza batatu b’umwuga hamwe n’inteko y’abaturage cumi na babiri. Buri ntara igira Urukiko rwa rubanda.

Urukiko rugizwe na perezida n’abaseseri babiri. Perezida aba asanzwe ari umucamanza mu rukiko rw’ubujurire. Abaseseri bombi baba ari abacamanza bo ku rwego rw’urukiko rwisumbuye.

Perezida aba ashinzwe kuyobora iburanisha no gutuma habaho ituze mu cyumba cy’urukiko. Yemerewe gufata ingamba zose abona ko zikenewe kugira ngo ukuri kugaragare (urugero nko gusaba ko habaho kumva abatangabuhamya aba n’aba).

Inteko iburanisha iba igizwe n’abaturage 12. Hagomba kandi kubaho umusimbura wabo umwe cyangwa benshi. Aba basimbura na bo bitabira iburanisha kandi igihe icyo ari cyo cyose bashobora gusabwa gusimbura mugenzi babo bagize ikibazo bari mu nteko.

Inteko y’abaturage itorwa hakoreshejwe tombola mu baturage batari munsi y’imyaka 28 kandi batarengeje imyaka 65 batuye mu ifasi urukiko rwicayemo.

Gutanga ikirego

Ikirego gitangwa n’umushinjacyaha mukuru ugomba kwerekana ibimenyetso bishinja uregwa. Iyo uregwa  ahamwe n’icyaha, umushinjacyaha mukuru amusabira igihano mu izina rya rubanda.

Uyu mushinjacyaha mukuru aba ahagarariye umushinjacyaha w’Umwami. Umushijacyaha w’Umwami ubwe na we ashobora kuba umushinjacyaha mukuru mu rukiko rwa rubanda. Uyu mushinjacyaha mukuru ashyirwaho hakurikijwe amabwiriza y’ubushinjacyaha cyangwa cyangwa amabwiriza agena« uhagarariye rubanda ».

Abahohotewe bashobora guhagararirwa n’umwunganizi umwe cyangwa benshi. Si itegeko ko mu manza nshinjabyaha nk’uru rwo mu rukiko rwa rubanda habaho ababuranyi.

Ushinjwa na we yunganirwa n’umunyamategeko umwe cyangwa benshi. Bitwa ubwunganizi bw’ uregwa.

Mu iburanisha haba hari Umwanditsi w’urukiko wandika ibyifuzo bitandukanye, ibyabaye byose n’imihango itandukanye. Cyakora ibyo yanditse ntibishyirwaho umukono kubera ko iburanishwa rikorwa mu magambo gusa.

Imikorere y’urukiko nyirizina

Urubanza rubereye mu rukiko rwa rubanda ruca mu byiciro bitandukanye. Rutangirana no gushyiraho inteko. Ku munsi wa mbere w’iburanisha hatumizwa abaturage benshi kugira ngo hatorwemo abinjira mu nteko. Basabwa kwinjira mu cyumba cy’iburanisha  imbere y’urukiko, ubushinjacyaha n’ubwunganizi. Umuturage watumijwe ashobora gusaba ko atatorwa kubera  impamvu ze bwite. Muri icyo gihe urukiko rusuzuma icyo cyifuzo cye rukacyemeza cyangwa se kigateshwa agaciro.

Mu baturage bigaragaye ko nta kibazo bafite, hakorwa tombola. Bamwe mu batowe baza imbere y’ubushinjacyaha n’ubwunganizi. Hagatorwa abaturage 12 bajya mu nteko ndetse n’umusimbura umwe cyangwa benshi, kandi iri hitamo ntiritangwaho ibisobanuro.

Imigendekere y’iburanisha

Urubanza rwo mu rukiko rwa rubanda rutangira ubushinjacyaha busoma inyandiko y’ibirego. Iyi nyandiko iba ikubiyemo incamake y’urubanza isobanura ibyo umuburanyi aregwa kandi igaragaza umwirondoro w’ uregwa ndetse n’uw’uwahohotewe.Iyo ibyo birangiye, Perezida asaba uregwa kugira icyo avuga ku byaha ashinjwa.

Hanyuma hakabaho kumva abatangabuhamya n’impuguke zitandukanye: abacamanza bakoze iperereza, abapererezi, impuguke ku buzima bwo mu mutwe, abatangabuhamya b’ibyabaye, abahohotewe, abavandimwe b’uwahohotewe n’ab’uregwa, …

Kumva abatangabuhamya bishobora kumara iminsi myinshi cyangwa ibyumweru byinshi.

Perezida w’iburanisha, abaseseri, inteko iburanisha, abanyamategeko batandukanye kimwe n’uregwa bafite uburenganzira bwo kubaza abatangabuhamya. Icyakora, perezida n’inteko iburanisha bagomba kwitwararika ko mu bibazo byabo bagaragaza ko hari uruhande babogamiyemo.

Kwemeza niba uregwa ahamwa n’icyaha

Buri ruhande rugerageza kwerekana ko urega ahamwa n’icyaha cyangwa ko ari umwere rukoresheje ingingo zitandukanye. Cyakora iyo ushinjwa  ahise yemera icyaha, ubwunganizi bushobora kugaragaza gusa ingingo nyoroshyacyaha.

Kwiregura bifite umurongo bikurikiza. Habanza abahohotewe iyo bahari, hagakurikiraho ubushinjacyaha hanyuma  uregwa n’ubwunganizi bwe.

Iyo impaka zirangiye, buri ruhande ruhabwa umwanya wo kugira icyo ruvuga ku ngingo zatanzwe n’urundi.

Hanyuma Perezida agahita aha ijambo uregwa amubaza niba hari icyo yongera ku kwiregura kwe.

 Inteko iburanisha itora umwanzuro

Nyuma y’iburanisha n’impaka zo kwemeza niba uregwa ahamwa n’icyaha, inteko iburanisha ihabwa impapuro ziriho ibibazo. Ikibazo kimwe cyangwa byinshi by’ingenzi biba byerekeranye n’icyaha cy’uregwa kandi birashoboka ko ikibazo kimwe cyangwa byinshi by’ingoboka bigaruka ku ngingo zimurengera (urugero: niba yarashotowe) cyangwa ku ngingo zituma icyaha kigira uburemere (urugero: niba yarakoze icyaha yabanje kugitekerezaho). Abagize inteko basubiza yego cyangwa oya kuri ibyo bibazo bitabaye ngombwa ko batanga ibisobanuro ku gisubizo bahisemo.

Nyuma yo guhabwa impapuro ziriho ibibazo, abagize inteko iburanisha 12 bajya ukwabo mu « cyumba bafatiramo imyanzuro » aho bajya impaka mbere y’uko buri wese asubiza ibyo bibazo mu ibanga. Abagize inteko iburanisha 12 baba ari bonyine mu cyumba cyabo. Nta wundi ushobora kucyinjiramo kandi muri icyo gihe cyose ntibaba bemerewe kugira undi muntu wo hanze bavugana kugeza barangije icyo gikorwa gishobora kumara amasaha menshi, cyangwa iminsi myinshi. Byongeye kandi, nta gihe ntarengwa cyagenewe iki gikorwa.

Umuyobozi w’inteko iburanisha ni we ubara amajwi. Niba benshi bashyigikiye ushinjwa, agirwa umwere. Bitabaye ibyo, ushinjwa ahamwa n’icyaha. Icyemezo cy’inteko iburanisha kigaragajwe n’ibisubizo batanze ku bibazo babajijwe ni cyo kiba ari umwanzuro w’iburanisha.

Kunganya amajwi atandatu kuri atandatu biha amahirwe uregwa.

Nyuma yo kujya impaka, inteko iburanisha isubira mu cyumba cy’urukiko. Umuyobozi w’inteko agatangaza igisubizo cy’abagize inteko iburanisha ku bibazo bitandukanye ariko ntatange ibisobanuro ku cyemezo cyabo. Ibi bikorwa uregwa adahari.

Nyuma, uregwa agarurwa mu cyumba cy’urukiko. Umwanditsi w’urukiko, abisabwe na perezida, atangaza mu magambo ibisubizo by’ibibazo.

Iyo uregwa agizwe umwere,  ahita arekurwa. Iyo yahamijwe icyaha, habaho impaka ku cyaha.

Umwihariko

Iyo habonetse yego 7 na oya 5 ku kibazo shingiro kijyanye no kwemeza uregwa icyaha, inteko isubira mu cyumba cy’urukiko kugira ngo isobanure iki kintu cy’umwihariko. Urukiko (perezida n’abaseseri be bombi) ruriherera kugira ngo rusuzume niba rwajya ku ruhande rwa benshi. Iyo  urukiko rugiye ku ruhande rwabo, uregwa aba ahamwe n’icyaha. Iyo rugiye ku ruhande rwa bake basubije oya, uregwa aba abaye umwere.

Impaka ku gihano

Iyo uregwa ahamijwe icyaha, ba baturage bari mu nteko iburanisha ntibongera guhabwa umwanya wo kugira icyo bavuga. Izi mpaka zireba gusa ubushinjacyaha n’ubwunganizi.

Perezida  abanza guha ijambo umushinjacyaha mukuru kugira ngo asabire uwahamijwe icyaha ibihano, mu izina rya rubanda.

Hanyuma Ubwunganizi bw’uregwa na bwo bugafata ijambo kugira ngo bugire icyo buvuga ku  kirego, cyangwa se butange impamvu nyoroshyacyaha. Ni bwo bwa nyuma ubwunganizi buba buhawe umwanya wo kugira icyo buvuga.

Bitandukanye n’igihe cyo kujya impaka ku cyaha, ubu noneho urukiko n’inteko iburanisha bariherera kugira ngo baganire ku gihano cyatangwa. Urukiko n’inteko iburanisha bafite uburenganzira bwo gutanga igihano kirenze cyangwa kiri munsi y’icyasabwe n’ubushinjacyaha cyangwa ubwunganizi bw’uregwa.

Iyo mpaka zirangiye, uregwa ahabwa igihano. Bikitwa « umwanzuro w’urukiko rwa rubanda ». Kuri iyi ncuro ariko noneho, urukiko rusobanura impamvu rwafashe uyu mwanzuro.

Mu Bubiligi, urubanza rwaciwe n’Urukiko rwa rubanda ntirujya rujuririrwa. Cyakora hashobora kubaho ubujurire mu rukiko rw’ikirenga ariko nabwo  muri icyo gihe hakarebwa gusa niba haba hari aho itegeko ritubahirijwe cyangwa ryumvikanye nabi. Urukiko rw’ikirenga ntirujya mu mizi y’urubanza.

Impaka ku ndishyi

Nyuma y’urubanza, impaka za nyuma, ngufi cyane ziba mu ruhame, inteko yaburanishije n’uregwa badahari. Zireba indishyi zasabwe n’ababuranyi.

Ngurwo rero Urukiko rwa rubanda rw’i Buruseli rwaburanishije umunyarwanda Fabien Neretse.Mu iburanisha ryamaze ibyumweru bitandatu, rwamuhamije icyaha cya jenoside yakorewe abatutsi mu Rwanda n’ibyaha byo mu ntambara. Yabaye umunyarwanda wa mbere uhamijwe jenoside  mu butabera bw’u Bubiligi bitandukanye n’izindi manza enye (4) zabaye mbere y’urwe kuko zo zitigeze zikoresha ijambo jenoside mu bihano zatanze. Yakatiwe igifungo cy’imyaka 25, ku wa 20 ukuboza 2019.

Télesphore KABERUKA

Sur Karegeya Jean Baptiste Omar

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